Codd Rules - An Introduction
Codd's 12 rules - A Gentle Introduction to SQL Database
Edgar Frank “Ted” Codd, the same person who invented relational data bases is the best person we can find. In 1985 Codd created the 12 rules of RDBMS (Relational Data Base Management System).
Rule(0) - Foundation RuleA relational database management system must manage its stored data using only its relational capabilities.
Rule(1) - The information rule
All information in the database should be represented in one and only one way - as values in a table.
Rule(2) - The guaranteed access rule
Each and every datum (atomic value) is guaranteed to be logically accessible by resorting to a combination of table name, primary key value and column name.
Rule(3) - Systematic treatment of null values
Null values (distinct from empty character string or a string of blank characters and distinct from zero or any other number) are supported in the fully relational DBMS for representing missing information in a systematic way, independent of data type.
Rule(4) - Dynamic On-line Catalog Based on the Relational Model
The database description is represented at the logical level in the same way as ordinary data, so authorized users can apply the same relational language to its interrogation as they apply to regular data.
Rule(5) - The comprehensive data sublanguage rule
A relational system may support several languages and various modes of terminal use. However, there must be at least one language whose statements are expressible, per some well-defined syntax, as character strings and whose ability to support all of the following is comprehensible:
- Data definition
- View definition
- Data manipulation (interactive and by program)
- Integrity constraints
- Transaction boundaries (begin, commit, and rollback).
Rule(6) - The view updating rule
All views that are theoretically updateable are also updateable by the system.
Rule(7) - High-level insert, update, and delete
The capability of handling a base relation or a derived relation as a single operand applies nor only to the retrieval of data but also to the insertion, update, and deletion of data.
Rule(8) - Physical data independence
Application programs and terminal activities remain logically unimpaired whenever any changes are made in either storage representation or access methods.
Rule(9) - Logical data independence
Changes to the logical level (tables, columns, rows, and so on) must not require a change to an application based on the structure. Logical data independence is more difficult to achieve than physical data independence.
Rule(10) - Integrity independence
Integrity constraints specific to a particular relational database must be definable in the relational data sublanguage and storable in the catalog, not in the application programs.
Rule(11) - Distribution independence
The data manipulation sublanguage of a relational DBMS must enable application programs and terminal activities to remain logically unimpaired whether and whenever data are physically centralized or distributed.
Rule(12) - The nonsubversion rule
If a relational system has or supports a low-level (single-record-at-a-time) language, that low-level language cannot be used to subvert or bypass the integrity rules or constraints expressed in the higher-level (multiple-records-at-a-time) relational language.
Note:- Based on these rules there is no fully relational database management system available today. In particular, rules 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12 are difficult to satisfy.